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Note: 1 Klasse: 11
Arbeit: Ernest Hemingway
The purpose of this research paper is Ernest Hemingway. It describes the life of this American author and his works in connection with each other.
MY FIRST RESEARCH PAPER
I. Character and work
A. Overview of HemingwayŒs work
B. HemingwayŒs Character
A. Childhood, High school and World War I
B. "Toronto Star" and Paris
C. Spain, bullfighting and "In Our Time"
D. Fitzgerald and "The Sun Also Rises"
F. 1933 and Africa
G. Spanish Civil War
H. World War II
I. The Old Man and the Sea
K. Paris Ritz
L. Last years
Ernest Hemingway was born in 1899 in Oak Park, a comfortable suburb of Chicago. He died in 1961 in Ketchum, Idaho (Hemingway, 6). HemingwayŒs works were fictios, noveles, articles and short stories(#5). Hemingway wrote 6 novels, more than 50 short stories and one play(#5). He also wrote a masterpiece about the first World War, in which he was wounded(hemingway, 6). He was one of the very few writers who actually participated in World War one(#4, 86). His themes dealt with violent deaths, lost loves, sports,Drinking, Brawling, traveling, personal crises and battles and are mostly tragic(#5) (6).
For the public Hemingway tried to be a very, maybe extreme, masculine person. He was related to boxing, fishing, hunting and bullfighting, one of his great loves. The private Hemingway was a sensitive writer, a lover, and a fighter within himself. All this is to see in his artwork, his writing (6). Hemingway wrote simple and clear but involved complex currents in his work. His gift to transform his experience and pain within his relationships into artwork made him a great writer(9). He was a very erxtraordinary writer rather than a great writer(#4,87).
He was describe as an enthusiastic and mysterious person. He was married four times and became friends with many of his fictional figures(8).
HemingwaysŒ childhood was characterized by women. His dominate mother and his sisters probably made him feel that he has to be masculine. His mother gave singing lessons and made the main income of the family. Hemingway describes his mother later mostly negative. HemingwaysŒ father was an overworked and underpaid doctor. He also was a man of outdoor games in which he involve his son. Hemingway described him as depressive. It is to guess that Hemingway did not like Oak Park. Once he said: "Oak Park was full of wide lawns and narrow minds". He also did not like his native name, Ernest Miller Hemingway (#5), and used to have nicknames(13). The school was easy for Hemingway. He was a high grade student. That was probably caused by his interesting in reading, which he did every free minute(17). His schoolmates described him as an egoistic and dogmatic, but clever person(17).
In 1915 Hemingways younger brother, Leicester c. Hemingway, who wrote 5 novels and a biography about Ernest Hemingway, was born. In his last two High School years Hemingway started to write(17). His works were published in the school newspaper and other local papers. When he was out of High School he invented a girlfriend, named "Miss March"(17). She should probably irritate his mother and show his masculinity, which was hurt because he had no girlfriend(17). He also decided not to go to Collage, instad he started a carrier as reporter at the "Kansas City Star". In 1918 Hemingway ivied in the "Red Cross" that sent him to Italy. There he was wounded in both legs by a sharprel(17).
The circumstances of this accident are not very honorable. Hemingway was just a Chocolateboy(19) at the front. At the hospital Hemingway felt in love with his nurse, Agnes von Kurowsky(20). He lost her after they went back to the United States.
Back in the States Hemingway met Sherwood Anderson, who helped him to publish his writing(22). In 1919 Hemingway started to work for the newspaper "Toronto Star Weekly"(23). In 1920 he met his first wife, Hadly Richerson(23). They married in 1921. After their wedding the Hemingways moved to Paris, where Ernest worked as a European corespondent of the "Toronto Star"(23).
Hemingway remembered a poor live in Paris. In fact they had a very comfortable life, but lived in the worker class quarter of Paris(24). Although the Hemingways could find the money to travel for vacations to Germany, Spain and Italy. In this time, and during their whole marriage, Ernest dominated about Hadley(24). In other words they did what Ernest wanted to do.
Ezra Pound, an American poet was an important teacher of Hemingway. He was also influenced by Gertrude Stein, especially in rhythms and sounds(24). His style also was influenced by books by Turgenev, de Maopassant, Shakespeare and Joseph Conrad, he red(28).
When he met James Joyce, he got the book "Dubliners" and helped to smuggle it into the USA. It was a collection of related short stories, which also influenced Hemingway(28). HemingwayŒs talent to make fiends was extraordinary. He had a lots of friends in Paris, but because of his difficult character just Pound and Joyce stayed friends with him(29).
For the "Toronto Star" he wrote features, for example about the Genoa Conference, the Greek-Turkish War and the Lausanne Conference(32). He also made interviews with political figures like Mussolini. For this stories he traveled more than 10,000 miles a year(32). Besides Hemingway used the best stories in his fiction.
In 1922 Hemingway felt in love with bullfighting on one of the holidaytrips to Spain(32). During one of the bullruns Hemingway was wounded by saving a friend. During the winter 1922/23 Hadly got pregnant and in 1923 John Nicanor HemingwayŒs first son was born(32,35). In the same year "Three Stories and Ten Poems" Hemingway first book was private printed by McAlmon in the United Stated(35). One year later The "Tree Mountain Press" published "in our time"(35). "in our time" was the manuscript for Hemingways first commercial publication, "In Our Time". This book made him accepted as a writer(35). "In Our Time" consists of 15 stories, 8 of them are about Nick Adams(40). Hemingway worked on a method to show feelings without writing about them, but by describing details of the setting. He called this the Iceberg method, just the top of the iceberg is to see - but it still gives you intensitive feelings(40). He showed the use this technic in the experiments "Soldiers Home" and "Out of Season"(42). The method was perfect in "The Big Two-Hearted River", which describes a man fishing in the evening, and in the morning(45).
Hemingways son was constantly crying and created problems between the Hemingways. In 1925 Ernest started to flirt with Lady Duff Twysden. She was the model for his fiction figure Brett Ashley in "The Sun Also Rises"(37). Soon after he started to flirt with Pauline Pfeiffer. Hadley accepted the situation and Hemingway left her in 1926. He then married Pauline in 1927(27). Later he answered the question why he left Hadley with "because I an the son of a bitch"(37). But in 1942 he had not stopped to write love letters to Hadley(37).
Hemingways next book was "The Torrents of Spring", a parody about Sherwood Anderson and Gertrude Stein(45). It was published by Scribners.
In 1925 Hemingway met Scott Fitzgerald and became friends with him(45). Fitzgerald influenced Hemingway, but just for a short time period. Hemingway described Fitzgerald as a worker for magazines, destroyed by alcohol, but thought that Fitzgeralds works had a high quality(47). As an example for this high class work Hemingway named "The Great Gatsby". After reading this book he wrote "The Sun Also Rieses" (1925)(47). Fitzgeald helped Hemingway with the first two chapters(54). It is a story about a wild horde of expatriate English and American. The story grows around Brett Ashley, for who Duff Twysden was the model, and is narrated by a figure named Jake Bornes(47). "The Sun Also Rieses" was written in two hectic month of 1925. For the help of Fitzgerald Hemingway describes him later in "A Moveable Feast" as a hopeless drunk emotional failure(57).
In 1927 Hemingway and Pauline made a vacation to Spain and revisited locations out of "The Sun Also Rises". Hemingways next book was "Men Without Women", which was sold over 15,000 times, a very high number for a collection of short stories(57). The best stories of this book are about the problems in relationships between men and women(58).
In 1928 the Hemingways moved back to the United States. In June of the same year his second son, Patric , was born in Kansas City(59). Hemingway wanted a daughter at this time.
During Hemingways work on "A Farewell to Arms", HemingwaysŒ father shoot himself(60). He projected his emotions in his characters and published "A Farewell to Arms" in 1929. It was one of the most successful books Hemingway ever wrote(62).
The Hemingways moved to Cuba in 1931 after a uncle of Pauline bought a house there for them(64). Hemingways third son was born in Cuba in 1931 and he started a affair with Jane Mason(65). The same uncle, who bought the house, sponsored a safari for Hemingway in 1933(65). In the same year bad publicity was made for Hemingway by Gertrude Stein.
In 1935 Hemingway started his next book on his second Africa safari, "The Green Hills of Africa", which had two brilliant stories: "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" and "The Short Life of Francis Macomber"(66). All in all "The Green Hills of Africa" was not a good book.
In 1936 Hemingway got depressed after finishing the affair with Jane Mason(68).
Hemingway met Martha Gellhorn, a wellconected and independent writer and journalist, in 1936(70). Both were in Europe where the Spanish Civil War tooks place. Hemingway was the corespondent for the "North American Newspaper Alliance" and made notes for his next book: "For Whom the Bell Tolls"(72), which settes in the Soanish cicil war. HemingwayŒs affair with Martha Gellhorn became public after they where seen using the same bedroom(73). "For Whom the Bells Tolls" was published in 1940. It got excellent critics and by the end of 1943 over 785,000 copies where sold. For the filmrights Hemingway got 100,000 Dollars(76). In the same year Hemingway and Pauline got divorced and Hemingway married Martha Gellhorn(76).
In the late 1930Œs Hemingway started with drinking. He argued often with Martha. "He hit her; she crashed his car." (Jane Austen, 76).
When the USA entered World War II in 1941, Hemingway cursed at the coast of Cuba looking for submarines(77). He did not want to participate personally in the war, but Matha wanted. Hemingway took a post for the American Colliers, Martha was supposed to get(77). When the Hemingways arrived in London Hemingway first met Mary Welsh. He married her in 1946(77). Hemingway was preset at the Normandy landing and reported right from the front(79). His reports were Unbelievable and influenced through his fiction. He was every time the hero. Martha reported as well as he did, but without heroing herself(79). Hemingway lost his lost his sexual potency during a bad concussion(79). After a meeting in Rodenbourg Hemingway and Martha decided to go separated ways and to finish their relationship( 79). In 1942 Hemingway married Mary. Mary loved Hemingway as a hero, a warrior and a hero in bed(79).
During the decade after World War II Hemingway wrote his worst ("Across the River and into the Trees") and a few of his best books ("The Old Man and the Sea"). But he did not publish any of his works till 1950(#2). His inconsistent writing has itŒs reasons in Hemingways poor health and his drinking(81). His whole lifestyle went down. Mary was the one who took care of Hemingway(82). In 1951 Hemingways mother and his editor and friend died. In the same year Hemingways second wife, Pauline died after a telephone call with Hemingway(82). Gregory, Hemingways and Paulines son, blamed him for that(83).
In 1952 he published "The Old Man and the Sea", for which he got the Pulitzer. It is probably his best known book(87).In 1955 Hemingway was involved in the filming of "The Old Man and the Sea"(97).
In 53 he went on his third Africa safari. In Africa he had two plane crashes in three days(95). In the second one he got badly burned, what caused, with the heavy drinking, his poor health(95).
In the Paris Ritz forgotten trunks with Hemingways notes were found in 1957 (97). With this notes he wrote "A Moveable Feast", which was published in 1964 after his death(97).
His 60th birthday Hemingway celebrated in Spain watching bullfights. There he wrote his last book, "The Dangerous Summer"(96).
In 1960 the Hemingways had to move back to the United States, because the political circumstances in Cuba changed(100). In 1961 Hemingway was in a psychical clinic, where he got an electro-shock therapy. Two weeks after such a therapy he shoot himself in the head and died(100).
Hal May, ed. Contemporary Authors volume 7. n.p.: Gale Research Company, 1983.
Hank Aron "Hemingway." Current Biography, 1998. Wilsondisc for Windows. CD-ROM. H.W. Wilson Company, 1998.
Nicholas McDowell. Hemingway. Vero Beach: Rouke Enterprises, 1989.
Victor a. Kramer. "Hemingway, Ernest." World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia, Ver. 2.0 CD-ROM. World Book, Inc., 1996.