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- there were Race Relation Acts (’65, ’76) to reduce racism, but the immigration laws contributed to discrimination between black and white people
- the Immigration Act from 1962 restricted black immigration for the first time
- the Commonwealth Immigration Act (1968) : attempt to stop Kenyan Asians who had British passports coming to Britain
- the Immigration Act from 1971 made immigration by black people from the Commonwealth into Britain even more difficult: Distinction between patrials (allowed to enter freely, live and work in Britain) and non-patrials (could not)
-> almost all patrials were white people
Reasons for changes in Immigration policy:
- racist attitudes towards ethnic minority groups
- changing economic needs (economic situation went worse --> unemployment)
II. Acquisition of British Citizenship
• By lex solis: By birth in the United Kingdom (excluding family members of foreign diplomats or consular staff)
• By lex sanguinis (by descent): Children of a mother with British citizenship, or legitimate children of a father with British citizenship (provided the parent did not also acquire their citizenship by descent).
• By naturalisation:
o Marriage to a British citizen. Confers the right to naturalise in little over a year. Divorce within three years can affect citizenship.
o Application for a job in the UK. Takes a lot of time and you have to apply for work permits every few months. Finally, after 4 years of legal residence in Britain, permanent residence rights are automatically granted. After another year the worker can apply for naturalisation.
• By registration
• By entering the UK and claiming asylum upon arrival
- naturalisation: Einbürgerung
- patrials: People born in Britain or with a parent or ancestor born in Britain
- non-patrials: People born in Britain without a parent or ancestor born in Britain
- acquisition: Erwerb
- distinction: Unterscheidung --> verb: to distinguish