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Rosa Louise McCauley
* 04.02.1913 in Tuskegee, Alabama
Parents: James & Leona McCauley
1924: moved to Montgomery -> aunt
Was taught by her mother, couldn't afford school
-> so she had to clean classrooms after school.
1932: married Raymond Parks; Raymond supported her to
receive her High school diploma
1934: High school diploma
1943: Secretary of the NAACP (National Association for
the Advancement of Coloured People)("I want to let it be known that we did not wish to continue being second-class citizens")
1945: Rosa passed her voting test by the third time
1950: found work as a seamstress in a department store
2. The bus boycott
01.12.1955: Rosa Parks boarded the bus, the white section filled up; a white man was left standing
Bus driver -> Rosa had to give up her seat for this man; Rosa kept sitting there
Bus driver called police -> Rosa got arrested
2.12.1955: Jo Ann Robinson called out on strike: don't take the bus
5.12.1955: 5000 people meet in the church to continue the boycott; Rosa was found guilty Nixon spoke out in favour for her -> wasn't listened to
Clifford Durr, white lawyer represent -> arranged for bail which was paid by Nixon
9.12.1955: special city commission meeting -> national bus lines change routes
31.12.1955: black people want to make their own bus line, but city doesn't react
4.1.1956: city doubles bus fares to 20 cent, children 10 cent
30.4.56: Montgomery city commission still insists on the segregation in buses
4.6.56: three federal judges strike down that the bus segregation is illegal
13.11.56: U.S. Supreme Court lays out that the bus segregation is illegal
20.12.56: The Black Montgomerians are allowed to take the bus; the bus boycott ends.
3. Her life after the arrest
The bus boycott found a happy end, but Rosa‘s life of suffering wasn‘t
•She lost her job as a seamstress and couldn‘t find a new one
•Her family was harassed and threatened
•1957: She moved to Detroit to her brother
•28.3.1963: She joins in the march on Washington where
• Martin Luther King Jr. Held his speech „I Have a Dream“
•1965: Rosa begins working in the office of Representative John Conyers until 1988
She worked with Conyers on making Martin-Luther-King-Jr.-Day a national holiday
•1977: Raymond Parks and her brother Sylvester die
•1979: Her mother Leona McCauley dies
•30.08.1994: Rosa was attacked by an afro-american man, who wanted her money and didn‘t recognize her „ I pray for this young man and the conditions in our contry that have made him this way.“
•27.01.1999: Rosa presents a copy of her book „Quiet Strength“ to Pope John Paul II after a Mass at the Vatican
4. Her fame
1979: Spingarn award, NAACP‘s highest honor for civil rights
1987: Rosa and Raymond Parks‘ Institute of Self-Development, which motivates the youth „ I see the energy of young people as a real force for change.“
1992: Her first book „My Story“
1994: Her second book „ Quiet strenght“; she receives a doctorate degree at Soka University in Japan; She receives the Rosa Parks Peace Prize and lights the Peace Candle
1996: She gets the highest U.S. Civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom; Her third book „Dear Mrs. Parks: A Dialogue With Today‘s Youth“
22.04.1998: Ground Breaking on Troy State University Montgomery‘s Rosa Parks Museum and Library
1999: Parks receives the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor by both houses of Congress
01.12.2000: The dedication and grand opening of Troy State University Montgomery‘s Rosa Parks Museum and Library