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Titel:

Television


  Note: 2   Klasse: 11









Arbeit: TELEVISION



1. Introduction:



First I would like to give you general information. By way of introduction, let me speak about the history of television in Great Britain. First of all, let us consider how many British homes had televisions over the past years. In 1950, only eleven percent had televisions at home.

By comparison, in 1963 over 85 percent of British homes had a television-set. The age of television began before the Second World War. In actual fact, the first BBC TV programme was transmitted in 1936 by Alexander Palace. During the wartime between 1939 - 1945, no television was broadcast. The great breakthrough succeeded in 1967, because the first colour TV programme was broadcast in Great Britain.



2. How television is organised



The next aspect I want to deal with is how television is organised. The first thing that ought to be said is that only two organisations are allowed to transmit television programmes to the public.

These are the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA).

2.1. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC):

BBC is a television transmitter which is a public corporation.

While in other countries the government decides what will be presented on the screen, BBC has the authority to transmit what they want.

This means that BBC is free of such detailed control.

The chief feature of BBC is that they try to provide accurate information.



2.2. Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA):

IBA is an organisation which controls ITV. ITV stands for Independent Television Companies.

Every eight years the IBA gives contracts to approximately 15 companies who are then allowed to transmit television programmes to particular geographical areas in Britain.

Since 1981, IBA has a channel of its own called ‘Channel 4’

In comparison to BBC, which is not set up for profit, the aim of the ITV companies is to make profit.



3. Planning your evening’s viewing:

The next point concerns planning your evening’s viewing. It’s a matter of fact that programme schedules influence the way of our lives.

I would now like to talk about some concepts which are very important for programm-planners when scheduling a television programme.

These are:

· Peak time:

The fact of matter is that many people in Britain go to work during the day and go to bed at approximately half past ten at night. And so it is obvious that the peak time for viewing in Britain is between half past seven and half past ten p.m..

· Inheritance factor:

The planners take the inheritance factor into account when planning the order of their programmes.

· Hammocking:

This means sandwiching a programme which has only limited appeal between two popular programmes.

· What’s on the other side ?:

Added to all that, there are some other channels which also transmit television programmes. What conclusions can be drawn from this ?

The television-planners have to consider what’s on the other side?



4. Why is television always the same ?:

Today numerous questions are asked about of why television is always the same. For example, it is interesting to ask why there is always a glamorous girl in quiz shows or in light entertainment programmes. Or why does the newsreader appear to tell you the news when in actual fact, he is reading it off a teleprompter ?.

Though ITV and BBC introduce new programmes every year, television does not seem to change very much. Most reporters or comedians are still men. Those who work in television claim that they give the people what they want.

It is very difficult to talk about the programmes on BBC if you have not seen any. But it is said that TV in Great Britain is leftish in politics and cynical concerning the church.



5. Shall TV be cleaned up ?:

The next aspect „Shall TV be cleaned up ?“ British people believe in a Christian way of life. Television pours disbelief and dirt into millions of homes. From year to year crime and violence has been increasing. To sum that up BBC has been leading television the wrong way.

In the sixties, some people began to criticize television. For example, a schoolteacher started a campaign, called ‘Clean up TV’. The idea was to make programmes which build character instead of destroying it.



6.Someting about the newsreader and his news :

Let me tell you something about the newsreader and his news.

6.1. Is the news true ?

An important aspect of news is that it must be true. That’s why it’s called ‘the news’. It is obvious that there are important differences between the news from one channel and news of another channel.







If you watch the main news programmes on each channel, and take note of the items - and the order in which those items are shown you will find they are not exactly the same.

We must distinguish carefully between news which are clearly biased and News which is not biased. In countries where the government controls the television the news will be different. There will be no news against the government. In Britain there is only a little government control, but nevertheless some people doubt if the news is true.

In the final analysis, someone has to choose which item goes to sending. For example they have to choose between a birth of triplets in Scotland and a small earthquake in Peru. In connection they also have to choose how to tell a story, for how long, and in what words.



6.2. Something about the newsreader !:

The key to success as a newsreader is to have good linguistic proficiencies. It is sometimes forgotten that most newsreaders claim total involvement in the production process.

In action the newsreader has a pile of scripts in front of him, which is also duplicated on a teleprompt machine. In actual fact, he begins to read when he is instructed to do so through the earspace in his ear.



7. Can the camera lie ?:

Next I would like to talk about the question of whether the camera can lie. It is undoubtedly true that we look at pictures during television news and documentaries, and think that nothing could be more true than the pictures on television. But we must remember that there are many more pictures that could have been taken - or were taken, but not transmitted.







8. How does TV affect people ?:

Last but not least ‘How does TV affect people ?’ I am sure that we know for certain that the chances are that television can affect people a bit . For example, when television got more popular, some people stopped reading the newspaper. It may be that this effect was small. The total amount of reading was probably reduced only a little. Also the effect that television has split up the families was small. It would appear, then, that television has no great effect on our family life, because most of the usual family activities and home-centred activities go on like before. It was found that educational programmes, like teaching people a language, do not have a big effect on people. They remember some words, but are not able to speak the language then.



9. Television today !:

9.1. Video:

A great majority of people consider having a video-set as a matter of fact. They are used for recording television programmes and for showing feature films borrowed from video shops.

The selling of video cameras has increased for years because people enjoy making video programmes of their own. Private videos are made at different festivals, like christenings, weddings or birthdays.

9.2. Cable:

It is used so that people will get all the existing channels. There are special channels which have only sports, film news or music.

Also, television by satellite is not to take away today.





9.3. Digitale television:

Like every technical item, television has been changing quickly. The latest invention is digital television, which allows you to choose the film you want to see.

Handout:

Topic: Television in Great Britain

Referent: Zimmermann Markus 5HB/a



Contents:

1. Introduction:

History of television between 1936 - 1967.



2. How television is organised:

Something about the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Indepentent Broadcasting Corporation (IBA).



3. Planning your evening’s viewing:

There are some concepts which are very important for programm-planners in programming television. These are: peak time, inheritance factor, hammocking and ‘ÄWhat’s on the other side ?’.



4. Why is television always the same?:

This theme deals with what is common between television programmes. Today some questions are provided concerning why television is always the same.



5. Shall TV be cleaned up ?:

BBC has been going the wrong way, because crime and violence has been increasing. A campaign was started, called ‘clean up TV ?’.



6. Something about the newsreader and his news :

News must be true. That’s why its called news. But there are differences between news of one channel and another.

The newsreader reads the news from a pile of scripts.



7. Can the camera lie ?:

We see a TV screen and think nothing could be truer than this. But there are many more pictures that could have been taken - or were taken, but not transmitted.



8. How does TV affect people ?:

To sum up the effect that television can affect people was small.



9. Television today:

Television by video, cable and satellite is widespread. The last invention is digital television.








Quelle:




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